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Home \ Актуальное \ Alexeyev, S.V., Oganov, R.S., Tutynina, E.V. ASSESSING THE LEVEL OF ECOLOGICAL CULTURE OF THE POPULATION OF SAINT-PETERSBURG

Alexeyev, S.V., Oganov, R.S., Tutynina, E.V. ASSESSING THE LEVEL OF ECOLOGICAL CULTURE OF THE POPULATION OF SAINT-PETERSBURG

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ASSESSING THE LEVEL OF ECOLOGICAL CULTURE OF THE POPULATION OF SAINT-PETERSBURG

09

Alekseyev, Sergey Vladimirovich

Doctor of Pedagogy, Professor of the Department of Environmental Pedagogy, Human Safety and Health, St. Petersburg Academy of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education (St. Petersburg, RF)

1109

Oganov, Rafael Sumbatovich

PhD Candidate of Pedagogy, Associate Professor of the Department of Environmental Pedagogy, Human Safety and Health, St. Petersburg Academy of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education (St. Petersburg, RF)

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Tutynina, Elena Vladimirovna

PhD Candidate of Pedagogy, Associate Professor of the Department of Environmental Pedagogy, Human Safety and Health, St. Petersburg Academy of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education (St. Petersburg, RF)

 

Abstract

This article attempts to systematically analyze methodological approaches and techniques for assessing the level of “ecological culture.” Some findings from the social and pedagogical research into the ecological culture of the population of St. Petersburg are presented. The value of the average level of ecological culture is discussed. The article highlights the contribution of environmental and sustainable development education to ecological culture.

Keywords: environmental education, education for sustainable development, environmental culture, criteria and indicators of the levels of environmental culture.

 

“Culture cannot grow without ecological culture, and ecological culture cannot arise at all in conditions where culture is lacking"

(Danilov-Danilyan, Victor Ivanovich)

The problem of the formation of “ecological culture” (including education, literacy, and so on) was identified for the first time at the First International Conference on Environmental Issues in Stockholm (Sweden, 1972) and substantively explored at the First International Conference on Environmental Education in Tbilisi (USSR, 1977). Pedagogical understanding of the phenomenon of ecological culture is presented in the works of I.D. Zverev, I.T. Suravegina, A.N. Zakhlebny, S.N. Glazachev, S.V. Alekseev, I.N. Ponomarev, G.A. Yagodin, N.N. Moiseev, N.M. Mamedov, A.D. Ursul and others. At the beginning of the 21st century, publications began to appear on the phenomenon of ecological culture and how it is formed in different populations. Pedagogical research and interesting dissertations in the fields of sociology, philosophy and cultural studies that relate to this phenomenon also began to appear at this time. The following studies in the field are worthy of note:

S.P. Kozyreva, Environmental culture and education (Dissertation of a Candidate of Culturology, 24.00.01, 2004, Ulan-Ude;

E.A. Shishkina, Social construction of ecological culture at the regional level of globalization (Dissertation of a Doctor of Social Sciences, 22.00.06), 2009, Saratov;

P.O. Ermolaeva, Features of the formation of the ecological culture of Russian and American students (cross-cultural project) (Dissertation of a Candidate of Social Sciences, 22.00.04), 2011, Kazan;

E. YU Zakharova, Ecological culture of the social and natural ecosystem (Dissertation of a Doctor of Philosophy, 09.00.11), 2012, Chita;

N.N. Sharafeyeva, Library as a center for the formation of the ecological culture of youth (Dissertation of a Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, 05.25.03), 2012, Kazan;

O.I. Marar, Environmental culture in contemporary Russian society (Dissertation of a Doctor of Social Sciences, 22.00.06), 2012, Moscow;

N.I. Simonenko, Environmental culture as the basis of the educational paradigm: Philosophical and cultural analysis (Dissertation of a Candidate of Philosophy, 09.00.13), 2012, Chelyabinsk;

T.V. Ivanova, Ecological culture of nomads of the Baikal region (Dissertation of a Candidate of Culturology, 24.00.01), 2012, Ulan-Ude;

A.A. Gabinskaya, Globalization of education and the problem of formation of environmental culture (Dissertation of a Candidate of Philosophy, 24.00.01), 2015, Grodno (Republic of Belarus).

How environmental culture forms as a result of environmental education, or in its new guise as the culture of sustainable development (according to N.M. Mamedov) and education for sustainable development (ESD), is being studied quite intensively. However, no significant results have yet been observed in terms of increasing the environmental consciousness of Russia’s population. As noted by E.N. Dzyatkovskaya (2016), “less than 1% of teachers have heard anything about education for sustainable development”. Approximately the same result is recorded by G.V. Pichugin (2016), who found that only 2.5% of population gave an adequate answer to the question: "How do you understand the ideas of "sustainable development" and "education for sustainable development" discussed in the media?” It is difficult to agree with the author that issues related to sustainable development are actively discussed in the media. It seems that such activity is not widely reported in published media, and this is one of the serious problems of the formation of environmental education in the interests of sustainable development.

What is happening with environmental education in other countries, for example, the United States? The answer to this question can be found in a comparative pedagogical study by P.O. Ermolayeva, “Features of the formation of the ecological culture of Russian and American students (cross-cultural project)”. It is interesting to note that P.O. Ermolayeva (2011) considered two traditions of understanding the phenomenon of ecological culture. While ecological culture is as a complex social and cultural phenomenon with its own functions and structural elements embedded in the framework of the Russian scientific tradition, there is also a tendency in Russia to construct public ecological discourse within the framework of the American tradition.

Ecological culture is understood as a specialized aspect of the general culture of a society that involves harmonious interaction between society and the natural environment and is characterized by a conscious attitude to nature and practical participation in improving environmental management. Cross-cultural analysis has shown that American students are more environmentally active than Russian students. Russian students have more highly developed indicators of environmental awareness, environmental concern and environmental knowledge, but a low level of environmental activity. The ecological way of life for the American student has become normal, widespread and accessible, in contrast to the Russian students among whom environmentally-friendly practices and sustainable lifestyles are still being formed. Despite the equal percentage of ecologically informed students in both countries, American students are more active in terms of ecological behavior. Content-analytical research has shown that environmental messages in the Russian mass-media are one-sided, descriptive and casual. A tiny minority of environmental messages contain information that stimulates the audience to pro-environmental activities. The American media contain 2.5 times more reports on environmental issues than Russian media; the number of environmental articles in American print media is greater than in Russian ones. American publications contain less analytical information, but more articles on pro-ecological activities than Russian media [6].

Yu.N. Pakhomov (2003) introduced the concept and defined the main qualities of an ecological person who has realized the need and developed the skills needed to preserve life and take care of the social and natural environment and whose behavior is guided by the principle of minimizing the negative impact on nature. An ecological person is characterized by the integrity of their environmental worldview, a high degree of environmental awareness, environmental responsibility and environmental culture [8].

Ecological culture can be regarded as a complex characteristic of a person or a society, which includes the following components: ecological knowledge; ecological thinking; environmentally sound behavior as an ability to bring environmental knowledge and environmental thinking into daily life; and a culture of feelings that involves a moral "resonance", sympathy, or reverence for life (according to A. Schweitzer) [1,2,3]. These components of ecological culture were presented in the form of questions in a socio-pedagogical study of school-children (2018) with a view to studying the impacts of environmental education on the development of environmental culture. The research results are presented in Table 1 and in Figure 1.

Table 1. The contribution of environmental education and environmental awareness to the development of environmental culture (according to a 10-point scale

Components of ecological culture

Education through academic subjects, curricular and extracurricular activities, additional education, school websites

Education through mass media, social advertising, public organizations, environmental websites

1.

Knowledge of environmental concepts and terms

8.2

3. 4

2

Knowledge of environmental laws, rules, principles

7.3

2.3

3

Motivation to participate in ecological and environmental protection activities

3.5

7.6

4

Ability to explain and substantiate environmental phenomena, processes, and effects

6.5

4.2

5

Systemic study of environmental problems

7.6

4.4

6

Spiritual, moral and emotional effects of communication with nature

5.2

8.4

7

Information on international environmental problems (climate change, biodiversity loss, greenhouse effect, etc.)

2.4

8.1

8

Information about the ecological state of respondents’ region and country

3.4

9.0

9

Activity in promoting environmental knowledge

4.7

7.5

10

Participation in environmental campaigns

5.6

8.7

11

Knowledge of sustainable development

4.2

6.5

12

Knowledge of international and Russian environmental organizations

3.6

7.4

13

Participation in social networks on environmental issues

2.3

8.6

14

Desire and ability to develop environmental projects and take part in them

3.0

8.1

15

Self-assessment of the contribution to ecological culture

4.1

7.0

 

The average

4.8

6.7

*230 students of 10-11 grades of educational organizations of St. Petersburg took part in the study (2019)

From the point of view of high school students, the main contribution to the development of environmental culture is made by various forms of environmental education through mass media, social advertising, public organizations, and environmental websites (6.7) in comparison to environmental education through academic subjects, curricular and extracurricular activities, additional education, and school websites (4.8). Undoubtedly, this is an average result which requires more careful analysis. At this stage in the research process we may draw the following conclusions:

1. The axiological (value-targeted) component of ecological culture is formed by formal education and mass media. Forms of environmental education that target emotions and values (8.4 versus 5.2) and motivate people to engage with field solutions to environmental problems (7.6 versus 3.5) are evaluated by schoolchildren more highly.

2. The cognitive (knowledge) component of environmental culture is most systematically implemented in environmental education in schools, despite the fact that "ecology" is not a subject in the basic curriculum (in the future, according to the new Federal State Educational Standards,"ecology" will appear as a core subject in grades 10-11). This situation can be explained by the implementation of a mixed model of environmental education based on ‘greening’ the content of school subjects in combination with the independent study of environmental problems during extracurricular activities in St. Petersburg.

3. The active component of ecological culture that involves developing sustainable lifestyles is highly appreciated by students in ecological education. However, the majority of schoolchildren are introduced to practical ecological activity by the mass media rather than through formal education.

4. Awareness of a number of environmental problems, primarily issues relating to sustainable development, are assessed by schoolchildren as mostly due to the impact of mass media rather than formal education (6.5 as compared to 4.2).

5. Self-assessment of the reasons for their contribution to ecological culture is mostly recognized by schoolchildren as due to the impact of mass media rather than formal education (7.0 as compared to 4.1).

0000000

Figure 1 Development of students' initiative through the organization of social activities such as work on landscaping and improvement of urban areas

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Figure 2 Research and projects of high school students studying environmental problems in the urban environment

07

Figure 3 Practical environmental activities in the school area

We will now attempt to find the relationship between the components of formal environmental education and environmental education through mass media (similar reasoning can be used in the case of the development of speech, legal knowledge, economic culture, and so on).

The only common component that plays a role both in formal environmental education and environmental education through mass media is upbringing. In the case of ecological culture this means the education of respect for nature as a value, and the education of ecological ethics - the ethics of reverence for life (according to A. Schweitzer). The phenomenon of upbringing can be defined as "... purposeful generation through pedagogical interaction of dynamics of meanings and ways of human being, that actualize human qualities" [4].

The second common component implied both in formal environmental education and environmental education through mass media is related to the concepts of "informing” and “learning.” These include the processes of obtaining information about the state of the environment, the causes and consequences of environmental problems, and the transformation of information into personally significant knowledge, which can be transformed into competencies. The third common component is related to the concepts of "dissemination” and “development", which involves stimulating the desire to share socially significant knowledge with relatives and colleagues [5]. The contribution of various components of education through mass media to the main types of formal education (according to the European classification) of students and teachers is presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Contributions of educational components to different types of education (on a 10-point system)

 

Formal education

Informal education

 

Individual learning activity outside the standard educational environment

Disseminating

7.0*

7.1

8.9

Informing

9.1

8.7

9.0

Upbringing

8.5

9.2

7.4

 

*data from a survey of 240 students and teachers of educational institutions of St. Petersburg (according to a 10-point system)

It can be stated that taking into consideration the unity in the goal-setting of different types of education for the development of environmental culture and the culture of sustainable development, the contribution of various components of environmental education (dissemination of environmental knowledge through environmental propaganda, information and education) is different. The greatest contribution to the development of environmental education, from the point of view of students and teachers, is made by informing (9.1 and 9.0, respectively), and upbringing (9.2) which emphasizes the importance of integrating environmental education and environmental awareness into the development of human environmental culture.

In the dissertation of O.A. Sycheva, "Assessment of the results of environmental education of senior schoolchildren" (Chita, 2008), the contradictions in assessing the results of environmental education are identified as follows:

- the contradiction between the focus of education on the formation of competence, including cognitive, organizational, communicative knowledge and skills, and the formation of experience of independent activity, the ability to educate oneself, embodied in practical activities based on a system of values ​​and personal qualities, and the lack of development of a complex assessment system aimed at tracking these results;

- the contradiction between an extensive scientific and methodological fund devoted to the study of the problems of environmental education in modern schools, and the absence of a scientifically grounded approach to assessing the results of environmental education, developed in accordance with its specificity for schools;

- the contradiction between the diversity of the results of environmental education and the lack of a scientifically substantiated basis for their classification, the selection of criteria and indicators;

- the contradiction between the social significance of practical environmental protection for the formation of the ecological culture of the individual and the lack of appropriate criteria and indicators that enable an objective assessment of the results of this activity.

Sycheva notes that when assessing the results of environmental education, one should proceed from the understanding of environmental culture as an integrated result of environmental education, the main elements of which can be considered an environmental worldview, environmental awareness and environmental competence as the ability to carry out integrated environmentally sound activities based on a system of environmental knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and personality traits. The assessment of educational results is considered as a qualitative result of correlating the actual achievements of students in the field of environmental education with the planned ones. Assessment of the results of environmental education of schoolchildren should take into account its specific features: universality, focus on the formation of values ​​as the basis for action, subordination to modern ideas of "education for sustainable development", focus on the formation of practical and design skills etc. This implies the need to include in assessments all types of students' activities that embrace their cognitive and practical knowledge, skills and value self-determination. Description of goals, selection of indicators and classification of the results of environmental education of schoolchildren should take into account the levels of assimilation of the content of environmental education which includes the following aspects:

 - descriptive aspect which characterizes the ability to perform educational tasks of a descriptive type;

 - explanatory aspect which characterizes the ability to perform tasks of an explanatory type, skills in working with information;

 - practical (elementary activity) aspect which characterizes the ability to perform tasks of a practical type, and includes the ability to apply knowledge in practice, actions, communication and organizational-activity skills;

- project activity aspect, which is allocated in accordance with the specifics of environmental education, characterizes the ability to perform environmental projects, and includes the whole range of general educational skills that are actively formed in the course of environmental education, value self-determination, self-realization, and reflection [9].

The criteria for the ecological culture of an individual as the main, comprehensive result of ecological education are each of the achieved levels of assimilation of its content, since in aggregate they reflect the essential features of the main elements of the ecological culture of ecological worldview, consciousness, and competence. The general educational results of the ecological education of schoolchildren, which characterize the types of activity corresponding to a certain level of assimilation of knowledge and skills, will be indicators that allow one to directly observe and determine the correspondence of the actual objective results of the student's activity to each of the criteria, and, therefore, to judge the degree of formation of the ecological culture of the personality of the senior student. Achievement of the project level (the ability to carry out project activities) is a significant aspect of the ecological culture of a person, since activity that is beneficial for the social and natural environment is carried out on the basis of values ​​and beliefs at the initiative of the person, that is, it reflects elements of their ecological worldview, consciousness, and environmental competence. The types of activities in which a high degree of consideration of the socio-natural environment is manifested, are indicators of results corresponding to the design level.

Table 3. Target indicators of the effectiveness of the implementation of the concept of lifelong education in St. Petersburg

Components of environmental education

Criteria for the formation of ecological culture

Target indicators

 

Indicative and expert assessment of the target indicator on a 3-point system (-1, 0, +1) and a 10-point system (1 - 10)

Calculation method

Data for 2018

1.

Environmental upbringing

 

Attitude towards environmental problems of the city

The Positive index =% of positive answers /% of negative (indifferent) answers (according to the results of a sociological study of all categories of city citizens: schoolchildren, students, adults)

 

The positive index is more than 1, which means that most of the population has a positive attitude towards environmental problems - score + 1 point.

The index is equal to 1 means that the number of positively and negatively-minded people is the same, the score is -0.

An index less than 1 means that the number of negatively tripled children is greater than those with positive attitudes, a score of -1.

When evaluating on a 10-point system, experts assess the dynamics of quantitative indicators - from 1 to 10.

+1 / 8

The value of environmental quality in the rating of human values

 

Change in the place of the “environment” value” in the rating of human values ​​(by age groups of the city population: schoolchildren, students, adults)

 

 

Increase from year to year in the place of “environment” in the rating of values, score +1.

The environmental rating is low and does not change from year to year, the score is 0.

The place of the environment is deteriorating, which means indifference of the population to environmental problems, score -1.

When evaluating on a 10-point system, experts assess the dynamics of quantitative indicators - from 1 to 10.

+1/ 7

Motivation for practical environmental activities

 

Dynamics of motivated citizens for environmental activities (by age groups of the city population: schoolchildren, students, adults)

 

 

An increase in the motivation of citizens to comprehend environmental problems is manifested in an increase in the activity of their participation in environmental actions, can be assessed as +1 score.

The stability of motivation can be considered as the lack of attracting new participants to environmental activities, and can be assessed as score 0.

The decrease in the motivation of St. Petersburg citizens can be estimated as -1.

When evaluating on a 10-point system, experts assess the dynamics of quantitative indicators - from 1 to 10.

+1 /7

2.

Environmental

informing

Civil position

Citizenship dynamics of the activity of public appeals on environmental issues, violations of environmental legislation by individuals and legal entities; participation in public control over the implementation of environmental legislation in the city.

The increase in the activity of public appeals on environmental issues (both for negative phenomena and with gratitude for solving urgent environmental problems) can be assessed as +1. The stability of the number of calls allows us to make an estimate of 0. The decrease in the activity of St. Petersburg residents (with an explanation of the lack of information or ineffectiveness of calls) can be estimated as -1. When evaluating on a 10-point system, experts assess the dynamics of quantitative indicators - from 1 to 10.

+1/ 7

Reliable information about the quality of the environment

 

Expansion of the diversity and diversity of environmental education infrastructure facilities (environmental centers, environmental sites, portals)

 

Increase in the diversity of environmental education infrastructure facilities is rated as +1. Stagnation of this indicator allows to set a score of 0. The decrease in the infrastructure facilities of the EP for various reasons is estimated at -1.

When evaluating on a 10-point system, experts assess the dynamics of quantitative indicators - from 1 to 10.

+1/ 7

Multidimensional consideration and understanding of environmental problems, rules and principles

 

Implementation of interdepartmental projects and programs of environmental education (contests, reviews, festivals, forums, etc.)

 

Implementation of interdepartmental projects and programs allows to set a score of

 +1. Lack of interdepartmental projects and programs allows to set a score of

0. The declaration of the implementation of these projects and programs, but their real absence makes it possible to give an assessment - 1. When assessing according to a 10-point system, experts assess the dynamics of quantitative indicators - from 1 to 10.

- 1 /4

3.

Environmental dissemination (promotion of environmental knowledge)

Information resources (digitalization) of environmental education

Dynamics of information resources of environmental education (sites, portals, etc.)

Increasing the quantity and quality of information allows to determine the score +1. Lack of dynamics of the amount of information resources allows to determine the score 0.

Closing a number of information resources, reducing them for various reasons, allows to set a score of -1.

When evaluating on a 10-point system, experts assess the dynamics of quantitative indicators - from 1 to 10.

0/ 5

Public environmental organizations and environmental volunteering

 

Dynamics of public environmental organizations and their activity, volunteer groups (by age categories of the city population)

 

The increase in the number and activity of public organizations in different age groups makes it possible to estimate the indicator as +1. Lack of positive dynamics makes it possible to estimate the indicator as 0. Decrease in the number of public organizations and the activity of their activities makes it possible to estimate the indicator as - 1. When assessing according to a 10-point system, experts assess the dynamics of quantitative indicators - from 1 to 10

+1 /7

Total for 2018:     +5/57

Target indicators are determined based on the results of a sociological survey and a number of expert reviews carried out every three years. The results of the research carried out in 2018 when developing this concept can be considered as the starting point. The series of experimental data that was obtained will form the basis for monitoring the effectiveness of environmental education of the population of St. Petersburg.

The results of the discussion of the indicator and expert assessment of the state of the environmental education in St. Petersburg in 2018 (see Table 3) by the focus group method roughly give the following results: +5 on the three-point indicator system (maximum score +9) and 57 points on the ten-point expert system (90 points is the maximum number). The sum of points for the presented indicators, in fact, is a complex, integrative indicator of the state of environmental education of St. Petersburg.

Table 4. The level of the state of environmental education in St. Petersburg

The level of the state of environmental education in

St. Petersburg

Results

indicator measurements

(max. score 9)

expert judgments

(max. score 90)

High level

8-9

80-90

Sufficient level

6-7

60-79

Satisfactory level

4-5

50-59

Low level

less than 4

less than 50\

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to expert estimates in 2018, the level of environmental education in St. Petersburg is satisfactory; there are reserves for moving to a higher level. These indicators can become the starting point for monitoring the effectiveness of the implementation of the Concept of Continuous Environmental Education in St. Petersburg.

References

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3. Алексеев С. В., Оганов Р. С. Экологические проблемы городской среды глазами взрослого населения Санкт-Петербурга : социологические исследования // Непрерывное образование: XXI век. – 2019. – Выпуск 2 (26), 2019, DOI: 10.15393/j5.art.2019.4665 ВАК.

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5. Алексеев С.В., Костецкая Г.А. Экологические проблемы городской среды глазами студентов: результаты социологического исследования // Вестник Ленинградского государственного университета имени А.С. Пушкина. – 2020. – №2.– С.101-119 (ВАК). 6. Ермолаева П.О. Экологический образ жизни российского и американского студенчества: особенности проявления и проблемы формирования // Вестник института социологии. – 2011. – № 3. – С. 237-253.

6. Ермолаева П.О. Экологический образ жизни российского и американского студенчества: особенности проявления и проблемы формирования // Вестник института социологии. – 2011. – № 3. – С. 237 - 253.

7. Концепция системы непрерывного экологического просвещения населения на территории Санкт-Петербурга (Экологический портал Санкт-Петербурга http://www.infoeco.ru/index.php?id=8867).

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9. Сычева О.А. Оценка результатов экологического образования старших школьников. Автореферат канд.дисс. 13.00.01. – Чита, 2008. – 21 с.

 

Reference for citations

Alekseev, S.V., Oganov, R.S., Tutynina, E.V. (2022). On the issue of assessing the level of ecological culture of the population of St. Petersburg. Ecopoiesis: Eco-Human Theory and Practice, 3(1). [open access internet journal]. – URL: http://ecopoiesis.ru (d/m/y)


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